If you're having trouble viewing this email, you may see it online.
|Understanding the Work of Cohesion and the Work of Adhesion|
The work of cohesion is a measure of the energy required to separate two adjacent molecules in a liquid. For reference, observe the red connections in the graphic below.
In surface science, it is particularly relevant to understanding the behavior of liquids at interfaces with other materials, including solids and gases. In the case of water, the work of cohesion is important due to the unique properties of the water molecule. Water molecules have a dipolar nature, which means that they are electrically charged and attracted to each other through electrostatic forces. This results in a high work of cohesion, which makes water molecules strongly attracted to each other and resistant to separation.
At the surface of water, the work of cohesion leads to the formation of a cohesive layer of water molecules that is more strongly attracted to each other than to the air above. This results in the phenomenon of surface tension, which causes water droplets to form spherical shapes and allows certain insects to walk on water without sinking. In the case of a drop, it's like an invisible rubber sheet on the outside of the drop.
The work of adhesion, by contrast, is a measure of the energy required to separate two materials at their interface, such as a liquid and a solid surface. For reference, observe the green connections in the graphic above.
In surface science, it is particularly relevant to understanding the interactions between different materials and the resulting adhesion forces. In the case of water, the work of adhesion is important for understanding how water interacts with solid surfaces. When water comes into contact with a solid, such as glass or metal, the water molecules interact with the surface molecules through a combination of electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonding. The work of adhesion measures the strength of these interactions, and determines whether the water molecules will spread out over the surface or bead up.
The work of adhesion can be influenced by factors such as the surface roughness and the surface chemistry of the solid material as well as the temperature, the pressure of the system, and other environmental factors. For example, a hydrophobic surface, which repels water, will have a lower work of adhesion with water than a hydrophilic surface, which attracts water.
Contact angle, as we know, is a measure of the angle formed at the interface between a liquid and a solid surface. It is used in surface science to measure both the work of cohesion and the work of adhesion.
The contact angle is determined by the balance of forces at the interface between the liquid and the solid surface. When a drop of water, for example, is placed on a solid surface, it will either spread out or bead up, depending on the balance between the cohesive forces within the liquid and the adhesive forces between the liquid and the solid surface.
If the cohesive forces are stronger than the adhesive forces, the liquid will bead up and form a high contact angle with the surface. This indicates a high work of cohesion, as it requires a significant amount of energy to separate the molecules within the liquid from each other. If the adhesive forces are stronger than the cohesive forces, the liquid will spread out and form a lower contact angle with the surface. This indicates a high work of adhesion, as it requires a significant amount of energy to separate the liquid molecules from the solid surface.
By measuring the contact angle, it is possible to determine the balance between the cohesive and adhesive forces at the interface, and to calculate the work of cohesion and the work of adhesion.
Understanding contact angle, the
work of adhesion, and the work of cohesion is important in a wide
range of applications, including coatings, adhesives, microfluidics
and wetting behavior of materials. In particular, it is crucial in
the development of materials that interact with water, such as
water-repellent surfaces, medical implants, and water filtration
ramé-hart contact angle goniometers and
tensiometers are essential and powerful tools not just for measuring the
contact angle between liquids and solid surfaces, but for understanding
surface tension and surface energy. These tools are widely used in
various fields, including materials science, surface chemistry, and
Customers who have invested in such instruments understand the importance of accurate and reliable measurements, and may have spent a significant amount of money to acquire their ramé-hart instrument. However, as technology advances, older instruments may become outdated and require upgrading to maintain their accuracy and reliability.
Rather than buying a new instrument, customers can consider purchasing an upgrade kit to preserve their investment in their ramé-hart instrument product. An upgrade kit can replace outdated hardware and software components, such as the camera and DROPimage analysis software, with new and improved ones. This will ensure that the instrument continues to perform at the same level of accuracy and reliability as a new instrument, and at a lower cost than purchasing a brand new tool.
Upgrading an older instrument with an upgrade kit can also lengthen its usable life, saving money in the long run. By replacing worn-out or outdated components, the instrument can continue to perform accurately and reliably, and may not need to be replaced for many more years. This can help customers avoid the cost and hassle of purchasing a new instrument, and can extend the useful life of their original investment.
In addition, upgrading an older instrument with a new camera and current software can bring significant benefits to users. The current U4 Series camera, for example, is 10-20 times faster than the older legacy cameras and is also higher resolution, enabling more precise and accurate measurements. Current DROPimage software also offers new features, such as a curved baseline feature, which can save time and increase productivity. By upgrading their instrument, customers can take advantage of these benefits without having to purchase a brand new instrument.
In short, purchasing an upgrade kit can be a cost-effective way for customers to preserve their investment and extend the life of their instrument. By replacing outdated hardware and software components with new and improved ones, the instrument can perform like a new one at a lower cost. Upgrading an older instrument can also bring significant benefits, such as improved resolution, sensitivity, and automation, which can increase productivity and save time as well.
If you have an older ramé-hart
instrument that is performing below expectations,
us today with your instrument model and serial numbers and we would
be happy to explain to you what upgrade options exist and provide you
with a quotation accordingly.